Grades, Properties and Applications of Titanium and Titanium Alloys

 Grade 1
Grade 1 titanium is the first of four commercially pure titanium grades. It is the softest and most ductile of these grades. It possesses the greatest formability, excellent corrosion resistance and high impact toughness.
Because of all these qualities, Grade 1 is the material of choice for any application where ease of formability is required and is commonly available as titanium plate and tubing. These include:
Chemical processing
Chlorate manufacturing
Dimensional stable anodes
Medical industry
Marine industry
Automotive parts
Airframe structure
Grade 2
Grade 2 titanium is called the “workhorse” of the commercially pure titanium industry, thanks to its varied usability and wide availability. It shares many of the same qualities as Grade 1 titanium, but it is slightly stronger. Both are equally corrosion resistant.
This grade possesses good weldability, strength, ductility and formability. This makes Grade 2 titanium bar and sheet are the prime choice for many fields of applications:
Power generation
Medical industry
Hydro-carbon processing
Marine industry
Exhaust pipe shrouds
Airframe skin
Chemical processing
Chlorate manufacturing
Grade 3
This grade is least used of the commercially pure titanium grades, but that does not make it any less valuable. Grade 3 is stronger than Grades 1 and 2, similar in ductility and only slightly less formable - but it possesses higher mechanicals than its predecessors.
Grade 3 is used in applications requiring moderate strength and major corrosion resistance. These include:
Aerospace structures
Chemical processing
Medical industry
Marine industry
Grade 4
Grade 4 is known as the strongest of the four grades of commercially pure titanium. It is also known for its excellent corrosion resistance, good formability and weldability.
Though it is normally used in the following industrial applications, Grade 4 has recently found a niche as a medical grade titanium. It is needed in applications in which high strength is required:
Airframe components
Cryogenic vessels
Heat exchangers
CPI equipment
Condensor tubing
Surgical hardware
Pickling baskets
Grade 7
Grade 7 is mechanically and physically equivalent to Grade 2, except with the addition of the interstitial element palladium, making it an alloy. Grade 7 possesses excellent weldability and fabricality, and is the most corrosion resistance of all titanium alloys. In fact, it is most resistant to corrosion in reducing acids.
Key Words: ASTM Grade 7; UNS R52400, CP titanium, C.P. titanium alloy
Titanium Ti-6Al-4V (Grade 5)
Known as the “workhorse” of the titanium alloys, Ti 6Al-4V, or Grade 5 titanium, is the most commonly used of all titanium alloys. It accounts for 50 percent of total titanium usage the world over.
Material Notes: 
Information provided by Allvac and the references. Annealing Temperature 700-785℃. Alpha-Beta Alloy.
Applications: Blades, discs, rings, airframes, fasteners, components. Vessels, cases, hubs, forgings. Biomedical implants.
Biocompatibility: Excellent, especially when direct contact with tissue or bone is required. Ti-6Al-4V’s poor shear strength makes it undesirable for bone screws or plates. It also has poor surface wear properties and tends to seize when in sliding contact with itself and other metals. Surface treatments such as nitriding and oxidizing can improve the surface wear properties.
Key Words: Ti-6-4; UNS R56400; ASTM Grade 5 titanium; UNS R56401 (ELI); Ti6Al4V, biomaterials, biomedical implants, biocompatibility
Ti 6AL-4V ELI (Grade 23)
Ti 6AL-4V ELI, or Grade 23, is the higher purity version of Ti 6Al-4V. It can be made into coils, strands, wires or flat wires. It’s the top choice for any sort of situation where a combination of high strength, light weight, good corrosion resistance and high toughness are required. It has a superior damage tolerance to other alloys.
Applications: Blades, discs, rings, airframes, fasteners, components. Vessels, cases, hubs, forgings. Biomedical implants.
Key Words:Ti-6-4; UNS R56400; ASTM Grade 5 titanium; UNS R56401 (ELI); Ti6Al4V, biomaterials, biomedical implants, biocompatibility
Ti-5Al-2.5Sn(Grade 6)
General material properties:
Ti 5Al-2.5Sn is an all alpha alloy; as such it is relatively soft.  It has good high temperature strength (for a titanium alloy), is very weldable, but cannot be heat treated.  It can be strengthened by cold working.
Typical application areas:
Ti 5Al-2.5Sn is used in both airframe and engine applications by the aerospace industry.  Typical uses include compressor case assembly, stator housing and various duct structures.
Key Words: UNS R54520; Ti-5-2.5
Applications: Fan & compressor blades, discs, spacers, seals, rings. Excellent creep resistance.
Key Words: Ti8Al1Mo1V, UNS R54810; Ti-811
Material Notes: 
Information provided by Allvac and the references. Annealed 730℃. Alpha-Beta Alloy
Applications: Airframes, jet engines, rocket engine cases, nuclear reactor components, ordnance components.
Key Words: Ti-662; Ti-6-6-2; UNS R56620
Material Notes: Alpha Alloy. Silicon is often added to improve creep resistance (See Ti-6242S).
Applications: High-temp jet engines. Blades, discs, spacers, seals. High performance automotive valves.
Key Words: Ti6Al2Sn4Zr2Mo, Ti-6242; Ti-6-2-4-2; UNS R54620
Grade Ti-4Al-3Mo-1V alloy is an alpha-beta sheet alloy that is a heat treatable. It provides excellent strength, creep and stability up to 482°C (900°F). This alloy does not corrode in salt or atmospheric environments.
Applications:In the aircraft industry for several components such as stiffeners, internal structures, and skins on airframes.
Titanium Bar Stock
Drop hammer method -The use of a machine consisting of an anvil or base aligned with a hammer that is raised and then dropped on molten metal, in order to forge or stamp the metal.
Ductility - A metal’s ability to be easily drawn into wire or hammered thin; easily molded or shaped.
Fabricality - Refers to a metal’s ability to be used to create machinery, structures, and other equipment, via being shaped and assembled.
Formability - A metal’s ability to be manipulated into various forms and shapes.
Hydropress Forming - The pressure exerted by a rubber press head forms a sheet of metal to the configuration of the tool - shaping the metal.
Interstitial Elements - “Impurities” found in pure metals, sometimes adding benefits to the alloy.
Press Brake Forming - A machine used to bend sheet metal into whatever form is called for.
Stretch form method - A technique in which the heated metal sheet is stretched over the mold and then cooled into shape.

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